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Novel Plasma Disinfection Improves Buildings’ Air Quality

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Teresa M. Mata 1, * , Antonio A. Martins 2, 3, Cristina S. S. Calleiros 4, Florentina Villanueva 5, Nuria P. Alonso-Quevilla 6, Marta Fonseca Gabriel 1, * and Gabriela Ventura Silva 1, *

LAETA-INEGI, Associated Laboratory for Energy and Aeronautics, Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, R. Dr. Roberto Frias 400, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal

Trends Shaping The Plasma Manufacturing Industry

LEPABE-FEUP, Laboratory of Technological Processes, Environment, Biotechnology and Energy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal

ALiCE—Associated Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal

Interdisciplinary Center for Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Novo Edifício do Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Avenida General Norton de Matos s/n, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal

Atmospheric Contamination Laboratory, Instituto de Investigación en Combustión y Contaminación Atmosférica (ICCA), Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Camino de Moledores s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain

The Potential Of Cold Plasma For Safe And Sustainable Food Production: Trends In Biotechnology

Received: July 29, 2022 / Reviewed: August 17, 2022 / Accepted: August 20, 2022 / Published: September 7, 2022

Goals: Indoor air quality (IAQ) has received increased attention with the advent of COVID-19. Ventilation is perhaps the area where the most changes have been proposed in response to the emergency caused by this virus. However, other strategies are possible, such as source control and pollutant removal. The latter includes cleantech, which is a new sector in relation to IAQ. Method. Various air treatment technologies reviewed and discussed in this document can be used to control pollutants, including physicochemical technologies (e.g., filtration, adsorption, UV photocatalytic oxidation, UV disinfection, and ionization) and biological technologies (e.g. example, plant treatment). methods and methods based on microalgae). Results and Interpretation: This paper reviews currently available solutions and technologies to “purify” indoor air, focusing on their advantages and disadvantages. One of the most common problems in this sector is the emission of pollutants, which are sometimes more dangerous to human health than the technologies are designed to remove. Another aspect to consider are the limits of each technology in terms of the type of pollutants to be removed. Each of the technologies studied works well for a family of contaminants with similar characteristics, but is not applicable to all contaminant types. Therefore, the optimal solution may involve the use of a combination of technologies to expand the scope of application in addition to the development of new materials, for example through the use of nanotechnology.

Increasing urbanization and modern lifestyles have led people to spend more and more time indoors (e.g. homes, offices, theatres, restaurants, shops, etc.), where they are exposed to indoor pollutants [1]. Due to the close relationship between air quality and health, WHO has recognized air pollution as one of the greatest environmental threats to human health [2]. Considerable emphasis is placed today on reducing individual exposure to indoor air pollutants, making it necessary to analyze indoor sources and the possibility of reducing emissions from those sources. Therefore, indoor air quality (IAQ) in all spaces where people live and work has become a matter of utmost importance and a significant determinant of human health and well-being. Several scientific studies have demonstrated a direct relationship between the improvement of air quality and positive effects on human health [3, 4, 5]. The impact of indoor air pollutants on human health can be observed in both the short and long term. Poor air quality leads to unwanted disease and, in the worst case, can lead to death [6].

Although the composition of the atmosphere, in terms of its major constituents (oxygen and nitrogen), is essentially the same indoors and outdoors, the types and quantities of pollutants indoors differ from those outdoors. Indoor air can contain a variety of pollutants, including particulate matter, tobacco smoke, radon, biological pollutants (such as mold, bacteria, fungi, dust mites, spores, and pollen), and more than 400 organic and inorganic chemical compounds that have relevant effects Welcome. [7, 8]. Furthermore, indoor air pollutants can reach concentrations 10 times higher than the outdoor air level, regardless of the location of the building [8]. These pollutants are released by indoor activities (e.g. cooking and cleaning), products or materials (e.g. in furniture and structures) to which are added other pollutants from the outside that can enter indoors [9].

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The concentration of pollutants in indoor air depends not only on the materials and activities inside the premises, but also on external factors [10]. Regardless of the degree of insulation, even in naturally ventilated or mechanically conditioned and ventilated rooms, the indoor atmosphere is a continuation of the outdoor atmosphere, i.e. outdoor air quality directly affects indoor air quality [11]. Inert pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO) can enter the environment and add to interior CO through unvented gas burners, malfunctioning cooking and heating appliances, fireplaces, tobacco smoke, and vehicle exhaust from attached garages [1, 12 ]. On the other hand, reactive pollutants such as sulfur dioxide (SO

), which usually occur in the open air, burn out quickly after entering the room [11]. Carbon dioxide is considered an indicator of air quality in non-industrial spaces such as homes, schools and offices, and is related to the presence of people in the room and human metabolism. It is also an indicator of the presence of other pollutants [13]. Although CO

At low concentrations it has little or no toxicological effect on humans, at higher concentrations it has direct consequences for health. In concentrations above 5% CO

Causes the development of hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis, and in concentrations above 10% can cause convulsions, coma and death [14].

Novel Plasma Disinfection Improves Buildings’ Air Quality

People are mainly exposed to indoor pollutants through numerous sources such as off-gassing from furniture, flooring, wall coverings, paints, adhesives, waxes, polishes, cleaning products, personal care products, tobacco smoke, heating appliances , kitchen, etc. Indoor air pollutant concentrations can be influenced by outdoor pollutant levels, as well as other factors such as door and window openings, ventilation rate, building age and size, and building renovations [15 ]. Cleaning and personal care products are common sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), which oxidize and partially condense and then break down into fine particles. New furniture usually releases formaldehyde [16]. Gas appliances such as stoves, boilers, smokehouses and stoves are important sources of NO, NO

And polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (surfactants) [17]. Ultrafine particles with a diameter between 5.6 and 560 nm are usually found in indoor air [18]. However, P.M

Particles with a diameter of 10 and 2.5 μm and less, respectively, are most often found inside [18]. Laser printers emit ultrafine particles, long-chain siloxanes and alkanes (C21-C45), and 3D printers are a source of nanoparticles [16]. The use of joss sticks and candles [19], toasting, frying, baking, open fireplaces and old wood stoves are all causes of PM.

Emissions [16]. Biological pollutants mainly consist of ticks, hairs, bacteria, molds, fungi, spores, endotoxins, mycotoxins and other types of living organisms with very different and complex characteristics [8, 18].

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Ventilation for the dilution of indoor air pollutants is one of the most important passive methods for improving indoor air quality in most buildings [12, 20]. Natural ventilation can be achieved by simply opening the windows. Mechanical ventilation systems such as heat recovery ventilation (HRV) and energy recovery ventilation (ERV) are also common in modern, well-insulated buildings. These systems constantly remove stale indoor air and replace it with fresh air from outside. However, if the outside air is more polluted or in certain situations where there is no ventilation

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